Dr Baldev Raj
Director of National Institue of Advanced Studies, Bangalore
Dr Baldev Raj has assumed responsibilities as the Director of the National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore, one of India’s leading multi-disciplinary institutions. A distinguished scientist and former Director of the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research in Kalapakkam, Dr Baldev Raj has helped advance several challenging technologies, especially those related to sodium cooled fast spectrum reactor with closed fuel cycle; a sustainable energy spectrum. He has also nurtured and grown excellent schools of global stature in nuclear materials and mechanics and nano science and technology. He has pursued his work in interdisciplinary domains of energy, cultural heritage, medical technologies, nano science and technology and education. He has been responsible for providing solutions to many unsolved challenges in Strategic, Security and Industry domains. He is known for overcoming the barriers of academic research and industry with acumens of leadership and experiences.
The author of more than 970 academic papers in peer reviewed journals along with 75 books and special journal volumes; He has h-index of 42; i10 of 273; substantial and arguably one of the unparallel achievements considering his contributions to realise technologies and large mission programmes. It is quite natural that Dr Baldev Raj has been recognized by way of more than 100 awards, 380 honours, keynote, invited lectures and significant assignments in more than 30 countries. He is Editor in Chief of three series of books and Editor in several reputed national and international journals and publications. A recipient of the Padma Shri award; the other awards include Life Time Achievement Award of the Indian Nuclear Society, National Metallurgist Award by Ministry of Steel, the Homi Bhabha Gold Medal, Distinguished Materials Science Award, Materials Research Society of India, etc. He is a distinguished alumni of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
A member of the Circle of Advisors, Cambridge University, UK, and a member of the Search Group for the Queen Elizabeth prize in engineering, Selection Committee Global Energy Prize (both are being nurtured to stature of Nobel Prize in Sciences).
Dr Baldev Raj is also a Fellow of all the four Science and Engineering academies in India, German Academy of Sciences and the World Academy of Sciences, International Nuclear Science Academy, Academia NDT International, etc. He is the Chairman of the Board of Governors of IIT Gandhinagar & NIT, Puducherry, two new Nationally Important Institutes for higher education in engineering created through constitutional approval of the Indian Parliament. A member of the Court of Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi, and President of the International Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences (CAETS). He is Honorary Member, International Medical Sciences Academy and Honorary Consul General of Michigan State University. He is Honorary Member, IIM, ICNDT, British Institute of NDT, ISNT, etc. He has been the Past President, Indian Institute of Metals, International Committee on NDT, International Institute of Welding., Indian National Academy of Engineering, Indian Society of NDT, Indian Institute of Welding, etc. He has been alternate Chairman of Senior Advisory Group of Nuclear Energy (IAEA, Vienna) and Chairman of Apex Committee of Nuclear Energy Systems (Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), India).
Dr Baldev Raj is known for mentoring hundreds of children, students, scientists and technologists, inspiring them to pursue high levels of professionalism in the pursuit of science and technology without losing sight of the need for exemplary ethical practices.
Life Cycle Management of Structural Components of Nuclear Systems
Baldev Raj1, P. Chellapandi2 and U. Kamachi Mudali3
1National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru, India
2Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Limited, Kalpakkam, India
3Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, India
Ever increasing demands on reliability, safety and economics for a range of nuclear systems translate to challenges in realisation of high performance components for operation at steady state, transient and severer accident conditions. In order to maximise the efficiency of new systems and enhance performance of ageing components, it is essential to understand degradation in qualitative and quantitative manner. Comprehensive approaches desire trans-disciplinary teams capable of testing, evaluation, analysis and implementation towards achieving robust design, materials, manufacturing, modelling simulation, monitoring and effective management. It has been demonstrated that with holistic approaches, life cycle can be managed with safety and cost-effectiveness. The authors explain their approaches with a few substantial examples: Aging and degradation of zircaloy-2 pressure tubes and coolant channels of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) has been extensively investigated and understood to decide on en-mass replacement of coolant channels. During service, pressure tubes are susceptible to hydrogen pick up, delayed hydrogen cracking, creep, and formation of blisters. The life of pressure tubes could be further prolonged by replacing zircaloy-2 with Zr-2.5 Nb material. Similarly the Monel-400 alloy steam generators of PHWRs where tube leaking due to under deposit attack and pitting was encountered has been replaced with Inconel 600 alloy tubes. In Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) with closed fuel cycle programme of India, comprehensive studies to understand the behaviour of materials in liquid sodium by exposing the representative samples and components in liquid sodium loops operating at reactor conditions for long durations and evaluating their performances have enabled right choices of materials, monitoring strategies and manufacturing. Steam generator for SFRs are key to realise safe operation with high availability of the nuclear system. The paper addresses life cycle management of this important component as an illustrative example of our comprehensive approach. In the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and waste management systems, a systematic approach has been pursued to study degradation causes and mechanisms during service with life cycle analysis (LCA) approach by taking into consideration the material, fabrication, service, operating conditions etc. The study identified susceptible locations where high degradation due to corrosion is expected in nitric acid medium leading to adaptation of methodologies to eliminate such occurrences during service. In this presentation, the authors describe experiences of life cycle management of critical structural components in Indian nuclear systems, based on their four decades of research, development and deployment experiences.